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Breast cancer
  • The breast is an excretory gland consisting of muscles, fibers, and milk ducts.
  • Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that affects some of the breast cells that proliferate randomly and can spread to other parts of the body.
  • Breast cancer is one of the most common and most severe types of cancer among women. It is the second cause of death in the Eastern Mediterranean region. In addition, there are more than 2.1 million women diagnosed with breast cancer annually at the global level.
  • Breast cancer is not limited to women only, although the size of a man's breast is much smaller than a woman's breast, there are still cells that may undergo cancerous changes. Statistically, women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer than men, but the disease may affect any man, especially between the ages of sixty and seventy.

Breast cancer symptoms:

  • An unusual swelling or lump in or near the breast to the area that extends under the armpit.
  • Change in the size and shape of the breast.
  • Change in the color or texture of the breast skin.
  • Wrinkles, redness, or inflammation of the skin.
  • Change in the shape of the nipple, or inverted nipple.
  • Pain, itching, or crusting of the nipple.
  • Unusual nipple discharge (fluid or blood).

It is important not to neglect these symptoms, claiming that they are not painful, and to rush to a doctor immediately to ensure safety and make sure that the tumor is not malignant.

What are the methods of early detection of breast cancer:

The method of diagnosis is the same for breast cancer in women and men, in contrast to the delay in diagnosing men's cases in the past. Despite the similarities, differences in breast size and men's awareness of this type of disease and their impact on early diagnosis and treatment effectiveness should be taken into account. Knowing the signs and symptoms of breast cancer may help save the patient's life because early detection of the disease makes treatment options more and the possibility of recovery much greater.

  • Method 1: Breast self-exam
  • Method 2: Clinical breast exam performed by a doctor
  • Method 3: Mammogram.
  • Method 4: Echography
  • Method 5: Take a biopsy (a sample) from the tumor for microscopic examination


Prostate cancer

The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in a man's reproductive system. Its function is to produce and store semen with a fluid rich in nutrients for sperm. It is located under the bladder and in front of the rectum and surrounds the upper part of the urethra, which is the tube that empties urine from the bladder.

Studies have shown that several risk factors may play a role in prostate cancer, including:

  • Age: The older a person gets, the higher the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Genetics/family history/ethnicity: The risk that the person is infected increases if a family member (father or brother) has prostate cancer. Americans of the black race are also affected more than whites. But the environment and the way of life can change that.
  • Smoking and diet: A high-fat diet and obesity may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Studies have shown that fat increases the production of testosterone, which stimulates the growth of cancerous cells in the prostate.
  • High levels of testosterone: It is more likely that men with high levels of testosterone or those who use testosterone as treatment may develop prostate cancer than men with low testosterone levels. Prolonged treatment with testosterone causes an enlarged prostate.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

  • Urine hesitancy
  • Urinary retention
  • Urinary urgency but little urination
  • There is blood in the urine
  • Pain in the lower abdomen and lower back
  • Pain extends to the legs and may cause hemiplegia in advanced cases
  • Albumin and fluid retention
  • Painful ejaculation
  • The disease may initially spread locally to the surrounding organs such as seminal vesicles, bladder, and urethra, then lymphatic spread, and then spread through the blood, affecting the bones, especially the sacrum, pelvis, vertebrae, skull, ribs, femur, and spine.


Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is rare. Cancer usually affects only one testicle, and the chances of a cure are very high, especially if detected in the early stages.

Testicular cancer is diagnosed in most men by doing a testicular self-examination.

Testicular cancer signs:

  • A lump or enlargement in any of the testicles
  • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • Pain in the lower abdomen and upper thigh
  • Sudden accumulation of fluid in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in one of the testicles or the scrotum
  • Enlarged or sore breasts
  • Backache

The causes of testicular cancer are not entirely clear, but many factors may increase the risk of testicular cancer, such as the following:

  • Pseudo-cryptorchidism: where the testicle is in the abdominal area instead of being inside the scrotum.
  • Klinefelter syndrome: It is a genetic disease that affects men and causes some problems, such as low sperm count, and some endocrine disorders.
  • Hereditary family history: where one of the family members has had testicular cancer.